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(from the Lord Jesus to John Wesley and now) 
26-36 Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
27-29? John the Baptist begins ministry (Luke 3,1-2) (15th year of Tiberius)
27-34? Jesus baptized by John the Baptist (Mk1:4-11)
31-34? John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3,19-20)
27-34? Jesus' ministry
32? - 34? Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized

32-34 A.D. Jesus Christ dies on the cross-fulfills over 300 prophecies

-Apostles and Deacons Evangelize here-

32?-67 Period Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters from Jerusalem to Rome. James heads church in Jerusalem.
32?-37 Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed
37? Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)
37-41 Gaius Caligula emperor of Rome, declared himself god
37-41? Marullus: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
40 Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Gal 1, 18-20)
41-54 Claudius emperor of Rome, killed by poisoning by his wife Agrippina
44 James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12, 1-3)
47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13, 4-12)
48-49 Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia" (Acts 15)
48-57? Paul writes Galations
49-50 Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
50? Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
50? Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
51-52 Paul writes 1 Thes
51-52 Paul writes 2 Thes
53-62 Paul writes Phil
54-68 Nero emperor of Rome
56 Paul writes 1 Corin
57 Paul writes Romans
57 Paul writes 2 Corin
57 Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
58 Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
59 Nero kills his mother, Agrippina
60 Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
61-63? Paul? writes Ephesians
61-63 Paul writes Philemon
61-63 Paul writes Colossians
61-63? Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"
62? James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic"
62 Paul martyred for treason in Rome
62 {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
62 Nero kills his wife Octavia and marries Poppaea Sabina
64 Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to squelch the rumor , Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
64-70? 1 Peter written in Rome, by Peter the apostle, or a disciple of Peter?, "catholic" epistle
65-125 Period in which 4 Gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles written
65-150 Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
65-150 Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter
65-150 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
65-150 Gospel of Thomas written, based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5
65-175 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
65-175 Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
65-250 Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
65-350 "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
66-70 Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
67 Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
67-78 Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21).  Tertullian names Saint Clement to have been the first successor to Saint Peter, but all other accounts unanimously have Linus as the first bishop of Rome following St Peter.  The Vatican's "Annuario Pontificio" (2003) cites the year 68. The discrepancy may be explained by Linus already being Saint Peter's adjutor during his lifetime.  Dorotheus, Bishop of Tyre, writing in the 3rd century writes about Linus: "whom the apostle mentions in his epistle to the Romans, was bishop of Rome after the holy apostle Peter."

The Apostolic Church Elder Irenaeus claims that Pope Linus is the Linus mentioned by St. Paul in his 2 Timothy 4:21. The passage by Irenaeus (Adv. haereses, III, iii, 3) reads:

"After the Holy Apostles (Peter and Paul) had founded and set the Church in order (in Rome) they gave over the exercise of the episcopal office to Linus. The same Linus is mentioned by St. Paul in his Epistle to Timothy. His successor was Anacletus."

In Liber Pontificalis it was claimed that Linus was buried on the Vatican Hill. In the 7th century an inscription was found near the confessional of St Peter, which was believed to contain the name Linus.

67 General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
68 Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
68 Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
68 Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls
found in 1949
69 Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
69 Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
69 Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
69-79 Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
70 Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in
70 Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter
5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
70? "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah
70-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
75-90 Gospel according to Luke written. Based on Mark and Q?
75-90 Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke?
79-81 Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
79-91 Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
79 Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
80-85 Gospel according to Matthew written. Based on Mark and Q?  Most popular in early Church.
81-96 Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
81-96 Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
90-100 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
90-100 2,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic" epistle
90-100 Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
90? Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
91-101 Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in 95 called "1 Clement"
94 "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium
Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a
doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with
pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many
of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the
leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him
previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of
Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction,
Marginal Jew, p.61]
96? Hebrews written, by ?
96-98 Nerva emperor of Rome
98-116 Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size


-Age of Martyrs/early Catholic Church-
see a poignant true Martyr Story & early letters here

- Where the name "Catholic" originated 

- and Body and Blood of Christ

Christ left the adoption of a name for His Church to those whom he commissioned to teach all nations. Christ called the spiritual society He established, "My Church".

In order to have a distinction between the Church and the Synagogue and to have a distinguishing name from those embracing Judaic and Gnostic errors we find St. Ignatius (50-107 A.D.) using the Greek word "Katholicos" (universal) to describe the universality of the Church established by Christ. St. Ignatius was appointed Bishop of Antioch by St.Peter, the Bishop of Rome. It is in his writings that we find the word Catholic used for the first time. St. Augustine, when speaking about the Church of Christ, calls it the Catholic Church 240 times in his writings.

St. Ignatius of Antioch, disciple of the Apostle John, concerning the heretics of his day wrote: "They have abstained from the Eucharist and prayer, because they do not confess that the Eucharist is the flesh of Our Savior Jesus Christ."

St. Justin Martyr, another Church Father of the second century wrote: "This food is known among us as the Eucharist... We do not receive these things as common bread and common drink; but as Jesus Christ our Savior, being made flesh by the Word of God."

"Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has life everlasting and I will raise Him up on the last day. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed" (John 6:54-56) "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" they argued. (John 6:53) "And whilst they were at supper, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke: and gave to his disciples, and said: Take ye, and eat. THIS IS MY BODY. And taking the chalice, he gave thanks, and gave to them, saying: Drink ye all of this. FOR THIS IS MY BLOOD." (cf. Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20).

In the most unequivocal language the Apostles affirmed that the bread and wine duly consecrated on the altar did in fact become the actual Substance of the Savior. Declared the Apostle Paul: "The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?" (1 Cor. 10:16)

100? Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
100? Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
100? 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
100? Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
100? Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
100? Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found
at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
100? Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by
some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch
(v14), "catholic" epistle
100-125? 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
100-150 Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
101-109 Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
109-116 Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
110? Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
110? "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
116-125 Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope.
117-138 Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain
125-350 Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled - Christians are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great Plague in Rome
125-136 Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
125? Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
125? Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
130-200 "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
130? "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
130? Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings
of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
130? Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of
Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
132-135 Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from
maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
138-161 Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
138-142 Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
140 Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a
heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
140? Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
142-155 Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
150? Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western"
version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex
Bezae (D)
150? Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
155-166 Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
160? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
160? Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
161-180 Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
164-180 Great Plague in Roman Empire
166-174 Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
170 Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
170 Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
170 Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and
faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
170 Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type
Gospels into 1
170? Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
174-189 Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
175? Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
180-192 Commodus emperor of Rome
185-350 Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?,
excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon,
Apocalypse of Peter
189-198 Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches
that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166,
190 Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
193-211 Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
197 Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
198-217 Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
200 Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
200? Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
200? Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
200? Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type: Rm5:17-6:3,5-14;8:15-25,27-35,37-9:32;10:1-11:22,24-33,35-15:9,11-16:27;Hb1:1-9:16,18-10:20,22-30,32-13:25;1Cr1:1-9:2,4-14:14,16-15:15,17-16:22;2Cr1:1-11:10,12-21,23-13:13;Ep1:1-2:7,10-5:6,8-6:6,8,20-24;Gl1:1-8,10-2:9,12-21;3:2-29;4:2-18,20-5:17,20-6:8,10-18;Ph1:1,5-15,17-28,30-2:12,14-27,29-3:8,10-21;4:2-12,14-23;Cl1:1-2,5-13,16-24,27-2:19,23-3:11,13-24;4:3-12,16-18;1Th1:1,9-2:3;5:5-9,23-28
200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
200? Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-
200? Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
212-217 Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
217-236 Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope (illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
217-222 Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
218-222 Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
220 Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
220? Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
222-230 Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
222-235 Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
223? Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
225? Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian): Mt20:24-32;21:13-19;25:41-26:39; Mk4:36-40;5:15-26,38-6:3,16-25,36-50;7:3-15 ,25-8:1,10-26,34-9:9,18-31;11:27-12:1,5-8,13-19,24-28; Lk6:31-41,45-7:7;9:26 -41,45-10:1,6-22,26-11:1,6-25,28-46,50-12:12,18-37,42-13:1,6-24,29-14:10,17-33; Jn10:7-25,30-11:10,18-36,42-57; Ac4:27-36;5:10-21,30-39;6:7-7:2,10-21,32-41,52-8:1,14-25,34-9:6,16-27,35-10:2,10-23,31-41;11:2-14,24-12:5,13-22;13:6-16,25-36,46-14:3,15-23;15:2-7,19-27,38-16:4,15-21,32-40;17:9-17
225? Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
230-236 Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
230-250 Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alexandria condemns Origen who in 248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223]
236-238 Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
236-237 Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
237-250 Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
238-244 Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
240-250 Christian council of Carthage
244-249 Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
249-251 Decius emperor of Rome
249 Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
250 Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
250 Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
250? Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of  Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover;  Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
250? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1-12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
251-253 Gallus emperor of Rome
251-253 Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
251-258 Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
253-260 Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
253-254 Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
254 Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
254-257 Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates
257-258 Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
257 Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
258 Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
260-268 Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
260-268 Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
264-268 Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
264? Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
268 Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
268-270 Claudius II emperor of Rome
269-274 Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
270-275 Aurelian emperor of Rome
275-283 Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass
275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
276-282 Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
276 Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
283-296 Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
284-305 Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
285 Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
290-345 St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
296-304 Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for Diocletian
300? Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
300? Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
300? Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms;
Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
300? other 3rd century NT witnesses: P1:Mt1:1-9,12,14-20 P4:Lk1:58-59,62-
2:1, 6-7;3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35;5:3-8,30-6:16 P5:Jn1:23-31,33-
40;16:14-30;20:11-17, 19-20,22-25 P9:1Jn4:11-12,14-17 P12:Hb1:1
P15:1Cr7:18-8:4 P20:Jm2:19-3:9 P22:Jn15:25-16:2,21-32
P23:Jm1:10-12,15-18 P27:Rm8:12-22,24-27,33-9:3,5-9 P28:Jn6:8-
12,17-22 P29:Ac26:7-8,20 P30:1Th4:12-13,16-17;5:3,8-10,12-18,25-
28;2Th1:1-2 P38:Ac18:27-19:6,12-16 P39:Jn8:14-22 P40:Rm1:24-
27,31-2:3;3:21-4:8;6:4-5:16;9:16-17:27 P48:Ac23:11-17,23-29
P49:Ep4:16-29,31-5:13 P53:Mt26:29-40;Ac9:33-10:1 P65:1Th1:3-
2:1,6-13 P69:Lk22:41,45-48,58-61 P70:Mt2:13-16,22-3:1;11:26-
27;12:4-5;24:3-6,12-15 P80:Jn3:34 P87:Pm13-15,24-25
#0171:Mt10:17-23,25-32;Lk22:44-56,61-64 #0189:Ac5:3-21
#0220:Rm4:23-5:3,8-13 #0212(Diatessaron):Mt27:56-57;Mk15:40-
303-311 Last persecution of Christians in Rome
304 Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
306-337 Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
306-312 Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
306-308 Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace
310 Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by Maxentius
311-314 Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence


312 Constantine is said to have a vision of a burning cross before a crucial battle and afterwards converts to Christianity.

313 Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which establishes the toleration of Christianity throughout the Roman empire.

354 - 430 The great inspired Catholic teacher Augustine of Hippo.  Augustine, an ex-sinner who once prayed to God; "Give me chastity, but not yet" clarified how Christians would think on several crucial issues such as the mystery of the Trinity and predestination.  He debated some of the great thinkers of his day, and did so in front of great crowds.  He told us about the great intimate struggles in his own life in the great spiritual classic, the Confessions

312 Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
313 Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
313 Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
314-335 Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
314 Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
317 Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
321 Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
325 Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st
great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend,
Nicaean Creed
325? Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
330 Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the
traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill
331 Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
336-337 Pope Mark, 34th Pope
336 Arius, Greek theologian - Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
337-350 Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
337-361 Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
337-352 Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
338 Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
340? Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven epistles - James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude
350-400 Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian
Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied
350 Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
350? Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350? Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm-Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
350? Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
350? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3
350? Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
350? Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
350? Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
350? Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
352-366 Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
354-430 St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian theology, church father
355-365 Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
360 Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
361-363 Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
363 Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
363 Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
364 Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
366-384 Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians
366-367 Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
367 Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
367 Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
367 Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
370 Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
370 Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron
(instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
373 Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
378 Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
379-395 Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
380 Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
381 Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true
human soul
382-384 Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
384 Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
384-399 Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
390 Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
390 Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
391? Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
393,397 Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
395 Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
395 Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
397 Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
399-401 Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope
400-484 Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism - Christian
doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends
400? Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text
becomes standard Western Christian Bible
400? Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
400? Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
400? Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
400? Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes:
2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
400? Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-
type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
401-417 Pope Innocent I, 40th Pope, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity
401 Visigoths invade Italy
403 Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
410 Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
414 Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
415 Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
416 Visigoths take Spain
417-418 Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
418-422 Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
418-419 Anti-Pope Eulalius
418 Franks take Gaul
420 St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
422-432 Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
423 Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
431 Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
429 Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
430 St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher,
wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
430 Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
431 Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of
Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
432 St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
432-440 Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
433-453 Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
440-461 Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
444 Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
450 Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
450? Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT +
1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon,
Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4,
2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
450? Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W):
Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"
450? Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27NT, many gaps
450? Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps
450? Codex Ambrosianus (F): Greek Genesis to Joshua
450? Codex Freer: Greek Deuteronomy and Joshua
450? Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg
450? Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type
450? Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type
450? Syr(pal), Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type
450? std. Aramaic Targums, T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets
451 Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both
human and divine in one, a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms
451 Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God"
451 Letters of Hesychius, Quodvultdeus; early Christian church fathers
454 Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human
455 Vandals sack Rome
457-474 Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman
461-468 Pope Hilarus, 47th Pope
463 Letters of Prosper of Aquitaine, early Christian church father
466 Letters of Shenute of Atripe, Theodoret of Cyrrhus; early church fathers
468-483 Pope Simplicius, 48th Pope
474-491 Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
476 Official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus
480-547 St. Benedict, founded the Benedictines
483-492 Pope Felix III (II), 49th Pope
484-640 Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria
- After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of
turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great
earthquakes occur
484-519 Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western
(Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek
church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of
Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian
484 Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
489 Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
491 Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
491-518 Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
492-496 Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
496-498 Pope Anastasius II
498 Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
498-514 Pope Symmachus
514-523 Pope Hormisdas
523-526 Pope John I, martyr
498-506 Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
500 Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
500? Codex Sangallensis vg : earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
500? Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
500? Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
502 Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
518-527 Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
524 Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological
Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
525 Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
526 Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000
526-530 Pope Felix IV (III)
527-565 Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor
527 Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
529 Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
530-532 Pope Boniface II
530 Anti-Pope Dioscorus
532-535 Pope John II
533 N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
534-870 Malta becomes Byzantine province
535-536 Pope Agapitus I
536-537 Pope Silverius, martyr
537-555 Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian
and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
539-562 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
542 Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
543 Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
541-546 Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
544 Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and
other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
547 Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"
547 Plague reaches Britain
548 Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
550-1453 Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
550 Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
550 St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
550? Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD
lists 27NT+Barnabas+Hermas+Acts_of_Paul+Apocalypse_of_Peter;
"Western" type
550? Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
550? Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
555 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
556-561 Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
561-574 Pope John III, authorized by Justinian
565-578 Justin II, Byzantine emperor
567 Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
572-628 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
575-579 Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II,
578-582 Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor
579-590 Pope Pelagius II, died of plague
582-602 Maurice, Byzantine emperor
587 Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
589 Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
590 Plague in Rome
590-604 Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the
singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as
Gregorian Chant)
594 End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!
596 St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
600? Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
600? Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
602-610 Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice
604-606 Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas
606-607 Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas
607-615 Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas
609 Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
610-641 Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas
611 Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira
614 Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
615 earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings
615-618 Pope Deusdedit
619-625 Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius
622-680 Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople
622 first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
624 Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr
625 Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
625-638 Pope Honorius I
625 Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
626 King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
627 Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh
628 Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians
628 Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
629 Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
629 Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
632 Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab and founder of Islam
632 East Anglia Christianized
632 Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
634 Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
635 Christianization of Wessex
635-750 Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
636 Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
637 Jerusalem captured by Islam
638 Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"
640 Pope Severinus
640 Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000
ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.
640-1380 Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete English translation of the Bible
640-642 Pope John IV
642-649 Pope Theodore I
649-654 Pope Martin I, martyr
654-657 Pope Eugene I
657-673 Pope Vitalian
673-676 Pope Adeodatus II
676-678 Pope Donus
678-682 Pope Agatho

-Quiescent Catholic Church-

The Easter Synod of 680 called by Pope Agatho was the first ecclesiastical body that asserted the primacy of Rome over the rest of the Church, but this was not an ecumenical council of the entire Church, so its decision was not generally accepted.


682-684 Pope Leo II
684-685 Pope Benedict II
685-686 Pope John V
686-687 Pope Conon
687 Anti-Pope Theodore
687 Anti-Pope Paschal
687-701 Pope Sergius I
690? Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede
and others from this point forward
701-705 Pope John VI
705-708 Pope John VII
708 Pope Sisinnius
708-715 Pope Constantine
715-731 Pope Gregory II
731-741 Pope Gregory III
741-752 Pope Zachary
750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
752-757 Pope Stephen II (III)
757-768 Pope Paul I
767 Anti-Pope Constantine
768 Anti-Pope Philip
768-772 Pope Stephen III (IV)
772-795 Pope Adrian I
795-816 Pope Leo III
816-817 Pope Stephen IV (V)
817-824 Pope Paschal I
824-827 Pope Eugene II
827 Pope Valentine
827-844 Pope Gregory IV
844 Anti-Pope John
844-847 Pope Sergius II
847-855 Pope Leo IV
850? King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also
done by Aldhelm and Aelfric
855-858 Pope Benedict III
855 Anti-Pope Anastasius
856 Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000
858-867 Pope Nicholas I
867-872 Pope Adrian II
872-882 Pope John VII
882-884 Pope Marinus I
884-885 Pope Adrian III
885-891 Pope Stephen V (VI)
891-896 Pope Formosus
896 Pope Boniface VI
896-897 Pope Stephen VI (VII)
897 Pope Romanus
897-898 Pope Theodore II
898-900 Pope John IX
900-903 Pope Benedict IV
903-904 Pope Leo V
903 Anti-Pope Christopher
904-911 Pope Sergius III
911-913 Pope Anastasius III
913-914 Pope Landus
914-928 Pope John X
928 Pope Leo VI
928-931 Pope Stephen VII (VIII)
931-936 Pope John XI
936-939 Pope Leo VII
939-942 Pope Stephen VIII (IX)
942-946 Pope Marinus II
946-955 Pope Agapitus II
955-963 Pope John XII
963-964 Pope Leo VIII
964-965 Pope Benedict V
965-973 Pope John XIII
973-974 Pope Benedict VI
974 Anti-Pope Boniface VII
974-983 Pope Benedict VII
983-985 Pope John XIV
985-996 Pope John XV
996-999 Pope Gregory V
997 Anti-Pope John XVI
999-1003 Pope Sylvester II
1003-1004 Pope John XVII
1004-1009 Pope John XVIII
1009-1012 Pope Sergius IV
1012-1024 Pope Benedict VIII
1012 Anti-Pope Gregory
1024-1032 Pope John XIX
1032-1045 Pope Benedict IX
1045 Pope Sylvester III
1045 Pope Benedict IX
1045-1046 Pope Gregory VI
1046-1047 Pope Clement II
1047-1048 Pope Benedict IX
1048-1049 Pope Damasus II
1049-1055 Pope Leo IX
1054 Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church
1055-1057 Pope Victor II
1057-1059 Pope Stephen IX (X)
1057 Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000
1058 Anti-Pope Benedict X
1059-1061 Pope Nicholas II
1061-1073 Pope Alexender II
1061 Anti-Pope Honorius II
1073-1086 Gregory VII
1080 Anti-Pope Clement III
1086-1088 Pope Victor III
1088-1099 Pope Urban II


-trouble with Catholic Church begins-

18 Year old political appointed Pope.  The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, Marozia (932), was absolute ruler at Rome. Before his death he administered an oath (954) to the Roman nobles in St. Peter's, that on the next vacancy of the papal chair his only son, Octavius, should be elected pope. After the death of the reigning pontiff, Agapetus II, Octavius, then eighteen years of age, was actually chosen his successor on 16 December, 955, and took the name of John XII.  According to Holy Roman Emperor Otto I (Great), Christian pilgrim women were afraid to go to Saint Peters because the Pope (John 12th) was known as a womanizer.  This Pope also had illegitimate children.

Holy Roman Emperor German Otto III established his cousin Bruno in the vacant papacy as Gregory V (996) and restored him (998) after his expulsion by a Roman revolt. After Gregory's death (999), Otto installed his tutor Gerbert of Aurillac as pope (see Sylvester II).

1000? Like an "omen"; a nail, supposedly from the cross of Jesus, is inserted into the blade of the Holy Lance during the reign of Otto III. A fracture occurs and the two parts were fitted together with an iron clamp.

1054 Schism between Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity begins. Bishop of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other.

1099 A.D., Pope Urban II called Western Christendom to take up arms to liberate the Holy Land from the Moslems.  Of all the wars waged in the name of God, none has ever matched the arrogance and conceit of the Christian Crusades. For nearly two centuries until 1291, this medieval "holy war" variously raged, sometimes so spiritually misshapen by rapaciousness, murder, and political greed that to think it all had to do with Christian faith is absurd. Begun by Pope Urban, along their way the Crusaders killed Jews, Muslims and Christians alike. Somehow the Pope succeeded in convincing these Christian hordes of historic battling barbarians from Western Europe to switch from killing Christian soldiers in Europe to Muslims in the Holyland. These crusaders were offered a penance for their prior sins if they went off to fight.  The vicious unchristian-like slaughter was highlighted by the way Richard the Lion Hearted (who was French and spoke no English) and Philip of France treated the Muslim defenders of Acre.  After the Muslims surrendered all 3,000 with their wives and children were executed by "Christian" crusaders.  We must also remember that the Crusaders sacked both the holy things of the Jewish Temple that the Romans had not taken, and Constantinople (4th crusade).  See an excellent DVD about the here

1215 The Inquisition formally began in 1215 during the reign of Pope Innocent III, who issued the following statement: "That they shall be seized for trial and penalties, who engage in the translation of the sacred volumes, or who hold secret conventicles, or who assume the office of preaching without the authority of their superiors; against whom process shall be commenced, without any permission of appeal." Thomas M'Crie records, "In the eleventh century, capital punishment, even in its most dreadful form, that of burning alive, was extended to all who obstinately adhered to opinions differing from the received faith."  The principal accusation against those who are subject to this tribunal is heresy, which comprises all that is spoken, or written, against any of the articles of the creed, or the traditions of the Roman Church. The inquisition likewise takes cognisance of such as are accused of being magicians, and of such who read the Bible in the common language, the Talmud of the Jews, or the Alcoran of the Mahometans.  A Protestant has seldom any mercy shown him, and a Jew, who turns Christian, is far from being secure.

A prisoner in the Inquisition is never allowed to see the face of his accuser, or of the witnesses against him, but every method is taken by threats and tortures, to oblige him to accuse himself, and by that means corroborate their evidence. If the jurisdiction of the Inquisition is not fully allowed, vengeance is denounced against such as call it in question for if any of its officers are opposed, those who oppose them are almost certain to be sufferers for the temerity , the maxim of the Inquisition being to strike terror, and awe those who are the objects of its power into obedience.

After judgment, a procession is performed to the place of execution, which ceremony is called an auto da fé, or act of faith.

The following is an account of an auto da fé, performed at Madrid in the year 1682.

The officers of the Inquisition, preceded by trumpets, kettledrums, and their banner marched on the thirtieth of May, in cavalcade, to the palace of the great square, where they declared by proclamation, that, on the thirtieth of June, the sentence of the prisoners would be put in execution.

Of these prisoners, twenty men and women, with one renegade Mahometan, were ordered to be burned; fifty Jews and Jewesses, having never before been imprisoned, and repenting of their crimes, were sentenced to a long confinement, and to wear a yellow cap. The whole court of Spain was present on this occasion. The grand inquisitor's chair was placed in a sort of tribunal far above that of the king.

Among those who were to suffer, was a young Jewess of exquisite beauty, and but seventeen years of age. Being on the same side of the scaffold where the queen was seated, she addressed her, in hope of obtaining a pardon, in the following pathetic speech: "Great queen, will not your royal presence be of some service to me in my miserable condition? Have regard to my youth, and, oh! consider that I am about to die for professing a religion imbibed from my earliest infancy!" Her majesty seemed greatly to pity her distress, but turned away her eyes, as she did not dare to speak a word in behalf of a person who had been declared a heretic.

Now Mass began, in the midst of which the priest came from the altar, placed himself near the scaffold and seated himself in a chair prepared for that purpose.

The chief inquisitor then descended from the amphitheatre, dressed in his cope, and having a mitre on his head. After having bowed to the altar, he advanced towards the king's balcony, and went up to it, attended by some of his officers, carrying a cross and the Gospels, with a book containing the oath by which the kings of Spain oblige themselves to protect the Catholic faith, to extirpate heretics, and to support with all their power and force the prosecutions and decrees of the Inquisition: a like oath was administered to the counsellors and whole assembly. The Mass was begun about twelve at noon, and did not end until nine in the evening, being protracted by a proclamation on of the sentences of the several criminals, which were already separately rehearsed aloud one after the other.

After this followed the burnings of the twenty-one men and women, whose intrepidity in suffering that horrid death was truly astonishing. The king's near situation to the criminals rendered their dying groans very audible to him; he could not, however, be absent from this dreadful scene, as it is esteemed a religious one; and his coronation oath obliged him to give a sanction by his presence to all the acts of the tribunal.

1216 A Spanish monk named Dominic Guzman spurred by hatred of heresy creates the monastic order that bears his name - the Dominicans.  To play a huge part in the coming Inquisitions.  The most zealous of all the popish monks, and those who most implicitly obeyed the Church of Rome, were the Dominicans and Franciscans: these, therefore, the pope thought proper to invest with an exclusive right of presiding over the different courts of Inquisition, and gave them the most unlimited powers, as judges delegated by him, and immediately representing his person: they were permitted to excommunicate, or sentence to death whom they thought proper, upon the most slight information of heresy.

1300 By the fourteenth century, the great, ancient city of Rome has dwindled to a miserable village. As few as 20,000 people cling to the ruins despite the ravages of disease and robber barons. Popes and cardinals had fled to Avignon in southern France. Rome was dwarfed in wealth and power by the great commercial cities and territorial states farther north, from Florence to Venice.

1305 Under pressure from the King of France, the seat of the Popes was move from Rome to Avignon in France, where it remained for 70 years.


The Christian Church and Celibacy:  For the first thousand years of the Christian church, priests, bishops, and even popes could — and often did — marry. At least 39 popes were married men, and two were the sons of previous popes. The ideal of celibacy existed, but as a teaching from the Apostle Paul, not a church doctrine. In his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul argued simply that single men had fewer distractions from their godly work: "He that is without a wife is solicitous for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please God. But he that is with a wife, is solicitous for the things of the world, how he may please his wife: and he is divided." Continue reading this at:


Why the Protestant Reformation Happened

The Protestant Reformation liberated two-thirds of Europe
from the often cruel domination of the Roman Church.  
In hindsight, all Christianity including Catholicism has
benefited from this reformation.  Just the amazing history
of conversion and evangelizing within a relatively short
period by both Catholic Priests and Protestant Ministers
which followed this reformation must show all Christians
the work of the Lord here.
In effect, it appears God broke us into "Christian Teams" 
(or cells) to make us stronger and to send us out throughout
the entire world to evangelize. 

Protestant, Catholics and Messianic Jews
 ALL now the Body of Christ

John Hus (1369-1414 A.D.)

John Hus (Jan Hus) was born in Bohemia (now part of the Czech Republic) in about 1371. He received a master's degree from Charles University in Prague in 1396, became a professor of theology in 1398, was ordained to the priesthood in 1400, was made rector of the University in 1402, and in 1404 received a bachelor's degree in theology (presumably a more advanced degree than the term suggests today).

John Hus was a student of John Wycliffe (also spelled: Wicliffe), who translated the Bible into English in 1382. Wycliffe advocated the right of the common man to read the Bible in his own language. Both Wycliffe and Hus believed scripture to supercede the dogmas and ordinances of the church and both declared the Papacy to be the AntiChrist foretold in scripture. John Hus was burned alive* at the stake in 1414 for his "heresy" and rebellion against Catholic authority.

As regards the function of Christ as the one Mediator between God and man, Hus was at one with Wycliffe. The English Reformer carried out his doctrine, with the strength and joy of a full conviction, to its logical issue, in the entire repudiation of the veneration and intercession of the saints. Hus, on the other hand, grasping the glorious truth of Christ's sole mediatorship more feebly, was never able to shake himself wholly free from a dependence on the intercession and good offices of the glorified. Nor were the views of Hus on the doctrine of the Sacraments nearly so well defined or so accordant with Scripture as those of Wycliffe; and, as has been already said, he believed in transubstantiation to the end. On the question of the Pope's authority he more nearly approximated Wycliffe's views; Hus denied the divine right of the Bishop of Rome to the primacy of the Church, and wished to restore the original equality which he held existed among the bishops of the Church. Wycliffe would have gone farther; equality among the priests and not merely among the bishops would alone have contented him.

It would seem that after a time Wycliffe's opinions almost died out in England. But meanwhile they, or opinions very like them, were eagerly taken up in Bohemia. Among those who thus became acquainted with Wycliffe's opinions was a young man named John Hus. He had been an admirer of Wycliffe's philosophical works; but when he first met with his reforming books, he was so little taken with them that he wished they were thrown into the Moldau, the river which runs through Prague, the chief city of Bohemia. But Hus soon came to think differently, and heartily took up almost all Wycliffe's doctrines.

Hus made many enemies among the clergy by attacking their faults from the pulpit of a chapel called Bethlehem, where he was preacher. From time to time some doctrines which were said to be Wycliffe's were condemned at Prague. Hus usually declared that Wycliffe had been wrongly understood, and that his real meaning was true and innocent. Hus also openly denounced the bulls of the antipope John XXIII against King Lancelot of Naples and preached against indulgences. But at length a decree was passed that all Wycliffe's books should be burnt (AD 1410), and thereupon a grand bonfire was made in the courtyard of the archbishop's palace, while all the church bells of the city were tolled as at a funeral. But as some copies of the books escaped the flames, it was easy to make new copies from these. Hus was excommunicated, but he still went on teaching. During his two years of exile he wrote his chief works, including the De ecclesia, which increasingly reflected Wycliffe's influence. He denied the infallibility of an immoral pope, asserted the ultimate authority of Scripture over the church, and accorded the state the right and duty to supervise the church. Because of these ideas he is generally considered a forerunner of the Protestant Reformation.

John Wycliffe died at Lutterworth (near Leicester, England) December 31, 1384..  In 1428, John Wycliffe's bones were exhumed and burned according to papal command. The dust was then dumped in a river.

Both Wycliffe and Hus were unfairly treated with contempt by the Church for denying indulgences paid to the Church in any way remediated any sin.  Both rightfully taught that the Bible should be presented to the people in the language of the people, that salvation comes only by faith in Jesus Christ, and the Word of God (and no pope in Rome) is the final authority.  John Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance and promised safety, but he was betrayed.  In the end, Hus was accused, imprisoned, and charged with heresy.  John Hus was then condemned and burned at the stake as a heretic.  He died singing on July 6, 1415.

In 1412, the Pope proclaimed a crusade against Ladislaus, King of Naples, with whom he had quarreled, and ordered that it should be preached, and that money should be collected for it all through Latin Christendom. Hus and his chief friend, whose name was Jerome, set themselves against this with all their might. They declared it to be unchristian that a crusade should be proclaimed against a Christian prince, and that the favors of the Church should be held out as a reward for paying money or for shedding of blood. One day, as a preacher was inviting people to buy his indulgences (as they were called) for the forgiveness of sins, he was interrupted by three young men, who told him that what he said was untrue, and that Master Hus had taught them better. The three were seized, and were condemned to die; and, although it would seem that a promise was afterwards given that their lives should be spared, the sentence of death was carried into effect. John Hus was burnt at the stake. The people were greatly provoked by this, and when the executioner, after having cut off the heads of the three, proclaimed (as was usual), "Whosoever shall do the like, let him look for the like!" a cry burst forth from the multitude around, "We are ready to do and to suffer the like." Women dipped their handkerchiefs in the blood of the victims, and treasured it up as a precious relic. Some of the crowd even licked the blood. The bodies were carried off by the people, and were buried in Bethlehem chapel; and Hus and others spoke of the three as martyrs.

By this affair his enemies were greatly provoked. Fresh orders were sent from Rome for the destruction of Wycliffe's books, and for uttering all the heaviest sentences of the Church against Hus himself. He therefore left Prague for a time, and lived chiefly in the castles of Bohemian noblemen who were friendly to him, writing busily as well as preaching against what he supposed to be the errors of the Roman Church.

Three Popes

In the day of John Hus, there was a crisis of authority in the Western Church. In 1305, under pressure from the King of France, the seat of the Popes was move from Rome to Avignon in France, where it remained for 70 years. (This period is called the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy, suggesting the 70 years that Jerusalem lay desolate after when the Jews were deported to Babylon.) In 1376, the then pope returned to Rome. When he died soon after, the cardinals, mostly French, were disposed to elect a French Pope, but the people of Rome objected, fearing that a French Pope would move the Papacy back to France. The cardinals therefore elected an Italian Pope, and then fled elsewhere, where they elected a French Pope and said that the first election had been under duress, and was void. Thus there were two (later three) claimants for the Papal Office.

Pope John XXIII, Pope Gregory XII and Pope Benedict XIII were invited by the royals of Europe to attend a council

In Constance, Switzerland. This council was held on the 5th of November, 1414. The reason for this council was

To take up the problem of 3 Popes in the Church and the church division it caused. Only Pope John XXIII attended, as Popes Gregory and Benedict declined. Pope John XXIII entered Constance with great pomp.

In the fourth and fifth sessions it was solemnly decreed that a General Council is superior to the Pope. "A Synod congregate in the Holy Ghost," so ran the decree, "making a General Council, representing the whole Catholic Church here militant, hath power of Christ immediately, to the which power every person, of what state or dignity soever he be, yea, being the Pope himself, ought to be obedient in all such things as concern the general reformation of the Church, as well in the Head as in the members." The Council in this decree asserted its absolute and supreme authority, and affirmed the subjection of the Pope in matters of faith as well as manners to its judgment.

The Council also entered upon the weightier affair of Pope John XXIII. Universally odious, the Pope's deposition had been resolved on beforehand by the emperor and the great majority of the members. At a secret sitting a terrible indictment was tabled against him. "It contained," says his secretary, Thierry de Niem, "all the mortal sins, and a multitude of others not fit to be named." The indictment contained seventy accusations, but only fifty were read in public Council; the rest were withheld from a regard to the honor of the Pontificate – a superfluous care, one would think, after what had already been permitted to see the light. Thirty-seven witnesses were examined, and one of the points to which they bore testimony, but which the Council left under a veil, was the poisoning by John of his predecessor, Alexander V. He had hired Marcillus Permensis, a physician to do this. The charges were held to be proven, and in the twelfth session (May 29th, 1415) the Council passed sentence, stripping John XXIII. of the Pontificate, and releasing all Christians from their oath of obedience to him. Further, that he was a heretic, a simoniac, a liar, a hypocrite, a murderer, an enchanter, a dice-player, and an adulterer; and finally, what crime was it that he was not infected with?" When the Pontiff heard of these accusations he was overwhelmed with affright, and talked of resigning; but recovering from his panic, he again grasped firmly the tiara which he had been on the point of letting go, and began a struggle for it with the emperor and the Council. Making himself acquainted with everything by his spies, he held midnight meetings with his friends, bribed the cardinals, and labored to sow division among the nations composing the Council. But all was in vain.

The case of the other two Popes was simpler, and more easily disposed of. They had already been condemned by the Council of Pisa, which had put forth an earlier assertion than the Council of Constance of the supremacy of a Council, and its right to deal with heretical and simoniacal Popes. Angelus Corario, Gregory XII., voluntarily sent in his resignation; and Peter de Lune, Benedict XIII., was deposed; and Otta de Colonna, being unanimously elected by the cardinals, ruled the Church under the title of Martin V.

It was proposed at this council that all the three popes should resign, and that a new pope should be chosen. In answer to this, John said that he was ready to resign if the others would do the same, but it soon became clear that he did not mean to keep his promise honestly. He tried by all manner of tricks to ward off the dangers which surrounded him; and, after he had more than once tried in vain to get away from Constance, he was able to escape one day when the members of the council were amusing themselves at a tournament given by a prince whom John had persuaded to take on their attention in this way. The council, however, in his absence went on to examine the charges against him, many of which were so shocking that they were kept secret, out of regard for his office. John, by letters and messengers, asked for delay, and did all that he could for that purpose; but, notwithstanding all his arts, he was sentenced to be deposed from the papacy for simony (that is, for trafficking in holy things-p 185) and for other offences. On being informed of this on May 31, 1415, he at once put off his papal robes, saying, that since he had put them on he had never enjoyed a quiet day.

In striking contrast to the ostentatious display of his arrival, was the mean disguise in which Pope John XXII sought to conceal his departure. The plan of his escape had been arranged beforehand between himself and his good friend and staunch protector, the Duke of Austria. The duke, on a certain day, was to give a tournament. The spectacle was to come off late in the afternoon; and while the whole city should be engrossed with the fete, the lords tilting in the arena and the citizens gazing at the mimic war, and oblivious of all else, the deposed Pope would take leave of Constance and of the Council.

When the deposed Pope's flight became known, all was in commotion at Constance. The Council was at an end, so every one thought; the flight of the Pope would be followed by the departure of the princes and the emperor: the merchants shut their shops and packed up their wares, only too happy if they could escape pillage from the lawless mob into whose hands, as they believed, the town had now been thrown. After the first moments of consternation, however, the excitement calmed down. The emperor mounted his horse and rode round the city, declaring openly that he would protect the Council, and maintain order and quiet; and thus things in Constance returned to their usual channel.

John Wycliffe is remembered as the "Morning Star of the Reformation"

John Hus condemned to Die

The one point on which Hus could be said to have a doctrinal difference with the Council was that he taught that the office of the pope did not exist by Divine command, but was established by the Church that things might be done in an orderly fashion (a view that he shared with Thomas More). The Council, having just narrowly succeeded in uniting Western Christendom under a single pope after years of chaos, was not about to have its work undone. It accordingly found him guilty of heresy.

With a promise of safe passage to and from, John Hus was summoned to this council at Constance, that he might give an account of himself. He was shut up in a dark and filthy prison. Hus had no friends in the Council; for the reforming part of the members could have nothing to do with him, lest it should be thought that they agreed with him in all his notions. And when he was at length brought out from prison, where his health had suffered much, and when he was required to answer for himself, without having been allowed the use of books to prepare himself, all the parties in the council turned on him at once. His trial lasted three days. The charges against him were mostly about Wycliffe's doctrines, which had been often condemned by councils at Rome and elsewhere, but which Hus was supposed to hold; and when he tried to explain that in some things he did not agree with Wycliffe, nobody would believe him. Some of his bitterest persecutors were men who had once been his friends, and had gone with him in his reforming opinions.

Hus was condemned to death, and was degraded from his orders, as the custom was; that is to say, they first put into his hands the vessels used at the consecration of the Lord's Supper, which were the signs of his being a priest; and by taking, away these from him, they reduced him from a priest to a deacon. The seven bishops selected for the purpose now came round him, and proceeded to remove the sacerdotal garments – the alb, the stole, and other pieces of attire – in which in mockery they had arrayed him. And as each bishop performed his office, he bestowed his curse upon the martyr. Nothing now remained but to erase the marks of the tonsure.

On this there arose a great dispute among the prelates whether they should use a razor or scissors. "See," said Hus, turning to the emperor, "they cannot agree among themselves how to insult me." They resolved to use the scissors, which were instantly brought, and his hair was cut cross-wise to obliterate the mark of the crown. According to the canon law, the priest so dealt with becomes again a layman, and although the operation does not remove the character, which is indelible, it yet renders him for ever incapable of exercising the functions of the priesthood.

There remained one other mark of ignominy. They put on his head a cap or pyramidal-shaped miter of paper, on which were painted frightful figures of demons, with the word Arch-Heretic conspicuous in front. "Most joyfully," said Hus, "will I wear this crown of shame for thy sake, O Jesus, who for me didst wear a crown of thorns".

When thus attired, the prelates said, "Now, we devote thy soul to the devil." "And I," said John Hus, lifting up his eyes toward heaven, "do commit my spirit into thy hands, O Lord Jesus, for thou hast redeemed me."

Then they took away the tokens of his being a deacon, and so they stripped him of his other orders, one after another; and when at last they had turned him back into a layman, they led him away to be burnt on July 6, 1415. He bore his death with great patience and courage; and then his ashes and such scorched bits of his dress as remained were thrown into the Rhine, lest his followers should treasure them up as relics.

The procession was now formed. The martyr walked between four town sergeants. The princes and deputies, escorted by eight hundred men-at-arms, followed. In the cavalcade, mounted on horseback, were many bishops and priests delicately clad in robes of silk and velvet. The population of Constance followed in mass to see the end.

As Hus passed the Episcopal Palace, his attention was attracted by a great fire which blazed and crackled before the gates. He was informed that on that pile his books were being consumed. He smiled at this futile attempt to extinguish the light which he foresaw would one day, and that not very distant, fill all Christendom.

The execution procession crossed the bridge and halted in a meadow, between the gardens of the city and the gate of Gottlieben. Here the execution was to take place. Being come to the spot where he was to die, the martyr kneeled down, and began reciting the penitential psalms. He offered up short and fervent supplications, and oftentimes repeated, as the by-standers bore witness, the words, "Lord Jesus, into thy hands I commend my spirit."

"We know not," said those who were near him, "what his life has been, but verily he prays after a devout and godly fashion." Turning his gaze upward in prayer, the paper crown fell off. One of the soldiers rushed forward and replaced it, saying that "he must be burned with the devils whom he had served". Again the martyr smiled.

The stake was driven deep into the ground. Hus was tied to it with ropes. He stood facing the east. "This," cried some, "is not the right attitude for a heretic." He was again unbound, turned to the west, and made fast to the beam by a chain that passed round his neck. "It is thus," said he, "that you silence the goose, but a hundred years hence there will arise a swan whose singing you shall not be able to silence."

He stood with his feet on the faggots, which were mixed with straw that they might the more readily ignite. Wood was piled all round him up to the chin. Before applying the torch, Louis of Bavaria and the Marshal of the Empire approached, and for the last time implored him to have a care for his life, and renounce his errors. "What errors," asked Hus, "shall I renounce? I know myself guilty of none. I call God to witness that all that I have written and preached has been with the view of rescuing souls from sin and perdition; and, therefore, most joyfully will I confirm with my blood that truth which I have written and preached." At the hearing of these words they departed from him, and John Hus had now done talking with men.

The fire was applied, the flames blazed upward. "John Hus," says Fox, "began to sing with a loud voice, 'Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me.' And when he began to say the same the third time, the wind so blew the flame in his face that it choked him." Poggius, who was secretary to the Council, and AEneas Sylvius, who afterwards became Pope, and whose narratives are not liable to the suspicion of being colored, bear even higher testimony to the heroic demeanor of both Hus and Jerome at their execution. "Both," says the latter historian, "bore themselves with constant mind when their last hour approached. They prepared for the fire as if they were going to a marriage feast. They uttered no cry of pain. When the flames rose they began to sing hymns; and scarce could the vehemency of the fire stop their singing."

Hus had given up the ghost. When the flames had subsided, it was found that only the lower parts of his body were consumed, and that the upper parts, held fast by the chain, hung suspended on the stake. The executioners kindled the fire anew, in order to consume what remained of the martyr. When the flames had a second time subsided, the heart was found still entire amid the ashes. A third time had the fire to be kindled. At last all was burned. The ashes were carefully collected, the very soil was dug up, and all was carted away and thrown into the Rhine; so anxious were his persecutors that not the slightest vestige of John Hus – not even a thread of his raiment, for that too was burned along with his body – should be left upon the earth.

The news of Hus's death naturally raised a general feeling of anger in Bohemia, where his followers treated his memory as that of a saint, and kept a festival in his honor. And when the emperor Sigismund succeeded his brother Wenceslaus in the kingdom of Bohemia, in 1419, he found that he was hated by his new subjects on account of his share in the death of Hus.

But, although most of the Bohemians might now be called Husites, there were great divisions among the Husites themselves. Some had lately begun to insist that in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper both the bread and the wine should be given to all the people, according to our Lord's own example, instead of allowing no one but the priest to receive the wine, according to the Roman practice. These people who insisted on the sacramental cup were called Calixtines, from the Latin calix, which means a cup or chalice. But among those who agreed in this opinion there were serious differences as to some other points.

After the death of John Hus, his followers continued to insist on the importance of administering the Holy Communion in both kinds, and defeated several armies sent against them. In 1436 a pact was signed, by which the Church in Bohemia was authorized to administer Chalice as well as Host to all communicants. The followers of John Hus and his fellow martyr Jerome of Prague became known as the Czech Brethren and later as the Moravians. The Moravian Church survives to this day, and has had a considerable influence on the Lutheran movement. When Luther suddenly became famous after the publication of his 95 Theses, cartoons and graffiti began to appear implying that Luther was the spiritual heir of John Hus. When Luther encountered the Pope's representative Johannes Eck, in a crucial debate, Eck sidestepped the questions of indulgences and of justification by faith, and instead asked Luther whether the Church had been right to condemn Hus. When Luther, after thinking it over, said that Hus had been unjustly condemned, the whole question of the authority of Popes and Councils was raised.

In the summer of 1419, the first public communion was celebrated at a place where the town of Tabor was afterwards built. It was a very different kind of ceremony from what had been usual. There were three hundred altars, but they were without any covering; the chalices were of wood, the clergy wore only their every-day dress; and a love-feast followed, at which the rich shared with their poorer brethren. The wilder party among the Husites were called Taborites, from Tabor, which became the chief abode of this party. They now took to putting their opinions into practice. They declared churches and their ornaments, pictures, images, organs, and the like, to be abominable; and they went about in bands, destroying everything that they thought superstitious. And thus Bohemia, which had been famous for the size and beauty of its churches, was so desolated that hardly a church was left in it; and those which are now standing have almost all been built since the time when the Husites destroyed the older churches.


New Pope Elected at Constance

It was resolved to elect a pope without further delay. The choice was to be made by the cardinals and some others who were joined with them. On St. Martin's day, the 11th of November, 1417 these electors were all shut up in the Exchange of Constance-a building which is still seen there. While the election was going on, multitudes of all ranks, and even the emperor himself among them, went from time to time in slow procession round the Exchange chanting in a low tone Litanies, in which they prayed that the choice of the electors might be guided for the good of the Church. And when at last an opening was made in the wall from within, and through it a voice proclaimed, "We have a pope: Lord Otho of Colonna!" the news spread at once through all of Constance. The new Pope styled himself Martin V. The people seemed to be wild with joy that the division of the Church, which had lasted so long, was now healed. All the bells of the town pealed forth joyfully, and it is said that a crowd of not less than 80,000 people hurried at once to the Exchange. The emperor in his delight threw himself at the new pope's feet; and for hours together vast numbers thronged the cathedral, where the pope was placed on the high altar, and gave them his blessing. But the joy which had been shown at his election was more than the effect warranted. The council had chosen a pope before taking up the reform of the Church; and the new pope was no friend to reform. During the rest of the time that the council was assembled, he did all that he could to thwart attempts at reform; and when, at the end of it, he rode away from Constance, with the emperor holding his bridle on one side and one of the chief German princes on the other, while a crowd of princes, nobles, clergy, and others, as many as 40,000, accompanied him, it seemed as if the pope had got above all the sovereigns of the world.

A holy war was planned by the Church, and vast armies, made up from all nations of Europe, were gathered for the invasion of Bohemia. One of these crusades was led by Cardinal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, and great-uncle of King Henry VI of England; another, by a famous Italian cardinal, Julian Cesarini. But the courage and fury of the Bohemians, with their savage appearance and their strange manner of fighting, drove back all assaults, with immense loss, in one campaign after another, until Cesarini, the leader in the last crusade, was convinced that there was no hope of putting the Bohemians down by force, and that some other means must be tried.

1469 Desiderus Erasmus is born. In 1516, Erasmus published his new New Testament in Greek.

1480 April 18 Lucrezia Borgia, the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI, is born in Italy. She will marry three times by the age of 18 to further her father's political ambitions.

1481 The Spanish Inquisition begins under the joint direction of the Spanish state and the Catholic Church.

1492 By order of Torquemada, the inquisititor-general, Spanish Jews are given three months to accept Christianity or leave the country.

1493 May 4 Pope Alexander VI publishes bull "Inter cetera divina" dividing the "New World" between Spain and Portugal. It was later revised on June 28.

1517 Squandering all of the church money on sumptuous living, Pope Leo X was virtually broke by 1517.  Cleverly he announced a special sale, a "jubilee" of indulgences.  Christians were granted the opportunity to pay money to reduce the penalties of sin on behalf of the dead, and even of those still alive, all to rebuild St. Peter's in Rome.

Martin Luther Disgusted at Popes selling Indulgences

A little before the year 1500, one of the greatest works ever done was the vast church of St. Peter, at Rome which was built atop the ancient church, which had stood since the time of Constantine the Great. There were several architects who carried on the building of this great church, one after another; but the grand dome of St. Peter's, which rises into the air over the whole city, was the work of Michael Angelo, who was not only a painter, but an architect and a sculptor.

It was by offering indulgences (or spiritual favors, forgiveness of sins, and the like) as a reward for gifts towards the new St. Peter's, that "soldier Pope" Julius II (pope from 1503 to 1513) raised the anger and disgust of the German reformer, Martin Luther. And thus it was the building of the most magnificent of Roman churches that led to the revolt which took away from the popes a great part of their spiritual dominion.

In the course of all these hundreds of years, Christian religion had been much corrupted from its first purity. The power of the clergy over the ignorant people had become far greater than it ought to have been; and too commonly it was kept up by the encouragement of superstitions and abuses. The popes claimed supreme power on earth. They claimed the right of setting up and plucking down emperors and kings. They meddled with appointments to sees, parishes, and all manner of offices in the Church, throughout all Western Europe. They wished to make it appear as if bishops had no authority except what they held through the grant of the pope. There were general complaints against the faults of the clergy, and among the mass of men religion had become in great part little better than an affair of forms. From all quarters cries for reform were raised, and a reform was speedily to come, by which, among other things, our own country was set flee from the power of the popes, and the doctrine of our Church was brought back to an agreement with Holy Scripture and with the Christianity of early times.

Martin Luther, ordained in 1507, challenged the Traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and coined the phrase Sola Scriptura, meaning the Bible only. 

In 1512, seven convents of his order having a quarrel with their vicar-general, Luther was chosen to go to Rome to maintain their cause. At Rome he saw the pope and the court, and had an opportunity of observing also the manners of the clergy, whose hasty, superficial, and impious way of celebrating Mass, he has severely noted. As soon as he had adjusted the dispute which was the business of his journey, he returned to Wittenberg, and was created doctor of divinity, at the expense of Frederic, elector of Saxony; who had often heard him preach, was perfectly acquainted with his merit, and reverenced him highly.

He continued in the University of Wittenberg, where, as professor of divinity, he employed himself in the business of his calling. Here then he began in the most earnest manner to read lectures upon the sacred books: he explained the Epistle to the Romans, and the Psalms, which he cleared up and illustrated in a manner so entirely new, and so different from what had been pursued by former commentators, that "there seemed, after a long and dark night, a new day to arise, in the judgment of all pious and   prudent men."

Luther diligently reduced the minds of men to the Son of God: as John the Baptist demonstrated the Lamb of God that took away the sins of the world, even so Luther, shining in the Church as the bright daylight after a long and dark night, expressly showed that sins are freely remitted for the love of the Son of God, and that we ought faithfully to embrace this bountiful gift.

Upon the eve of All-saints in 1517 Luther posted 95 thesis to the door of the church in Wittenburg, challenging the authority of the Papacy and the sale of Indulgences. he challenged any one to oppose it either by writing or disputation. Luther's propositions about indulgences were no sooner published, than Tetzel, the Dominican friar, and commissioner for selling them, maintained and published at Frankfort, a thesis, containing a set of propositions directly contrary to them. He did more; he stirred up the clergy of his order against Luther; anathematized him from the pulpit, as a most damnable heretic; and burnt his thesis publicly at Frankfort. Tetzel's thesis was also burnt, in return, by the Lutherans at Wittenberg; but Luther himself disowned having had any hand in that procedure.  Martin Luther also declared the Papacy to be "nothing else than the kingdom of Babylon and of very Anti Christ" in his book On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. Luther also translated the Bible into German, so that the German people could read scripture for themselves, in their own language.

In 1518, Luther, though dissuaded from it by his friends, yet, to show obedience to authority, went to the monastery of St. Augustine, at Heidelberg, while the chapter was held; and here maintained, April 26, a dispute concerning "justification by faith"; which Bucer, who was present at, took down in writing, and afterward communicated to Beatus Rhenanus, not without the highest commendations.

In the meantime, the zeal of his adversaries grew every day more and more active against him; and he was at length accused to Leo X as a heretic. As soon as he returned therefore from Heidelberg, he wrote a letter to that pope, in the most submissive terms; and sent him, at the same time, an explication of his propositions about indulgences. This letter is dated on Trinity Sunday, 1518, and was accompanied with a protestation, wherein he declared, that he did not pretend to advance or defend anything contrary to the Holy Scriptures, or to the doctrine of the fathers, received and observed by the Church of Rome, or to the canons and decretals of the popes: nevertheless, he thought he had the liberty either to approve or disapprove the opinions of St. Thomas, Bonaventure, and other schoolmen and canonists, which are not grounded upon any text.

So John Wycliffe, John Hus and Martin Luther championed the Bible over the Traditions and dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church and declared the Papacy to be the AntiChrist taught clearly by the Bible. So what book is the little angel tearing pages out of? What book did the reformers look to as "the authority" on matters of faith and doctrine, rather than decrees of the church?


John Fisher, Thomas More & Henry the VIII of England

Henry VIII

{Ibid., pp.566-567}

It is terrifying and sobering to realize that the English "Reformation" was carried out by means which are indistinguishable from those of the Russian Revolution of 1917, or the earlier French Revolution of 1789, both undertaken by godless, bloodthirsty, power-hungry despots anxious to displace the ancient faith beloved by the people, by the most ruthless means. To this abominable roster must be added the lustful despot Henry VIII, Cromwell, the Duke of Norfolk and their ilk. May God have mercy on their souls.

In Switzerland, Germany, and England the Reformation rose in the towns and was long resisted in the countryside . . . In the northern shires of England the spoliation of the lesser monasteries kindled a fire of resentment . . . This was the most critical point in Henry's reign. Half the country was in arms against his policies. Henri Daniel-Rops, The Protestant Reformation, vol. 2

After the uprising was quashed by virtue of Henry's betrayal of his promise of a general pardon, he wrote to the Duke of Norfolk, his agent:

      Our pleasure is that . . . you shall cause such dreadful execution to be done upon a good number of the inhabitants of every town, village, and hamlet that have offended, as they may be a fearful spectacle to all others hereafter that would practice any like matter.

John Fisher was born in 1469, enrolled at Cambridge University in 1483, ordained in 1491, and in 1502 became chaplain to Lady Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII. With her money and his ideas, they greatly altered Cambridge, restoring the teaching of Greek and Hebrew, bringing Erasmus over as a lecturer, and endowing many chairs and scholarships. In 1504 Fisher was made Chancellor of Cambridge and Bishop of Rochester. In 1527 he became chaplain to the new king, Henry VIII, and confessor to the queen, Catherine of Aragon. He stood high in the favor of Henry, who proclaimed that no other realm had any bishop as learned and devout.

Thomas More was born in 1478, studied law and was called to the Bar in 1501. He spent four years at the London Charterhouse (monastery of the Carthusian monks), considering becoming a priest or monk or friar. In 1505 he married Jane Colt, who eventually bore him three daughters and a son, but died in 1511. A few weeks after her death, More married a widow, Alice Middleton, with a son and a daughter of her own. The second marriage produced no offspring, but Alice made a good home for the six children already there, plus others whom More took in as students or as foster children. He was noted for giving his daughters far more education than most women, even in the upper classes, received. His friends included Erasmus and Colet, and other scholars who desired moderate reforms in the Church but were set against any break with the Papacy. Henry VIII, who became king in 1509, recognized More's learning and integrity, and appointed him to numerous public offices, including finally that of Lord Chancellor of England.

Henry was excommunicated by the Pope in 1533.
Henry could not get the Pope to grant an annulment, so those
who flattered and supported him and particularly his minister,
Thomas Cromwell, gradually moved for the break with Rome.
This was achieved at the end of 1534.

Trouble arose for both Fisher and More when Henry determined to seek a declaration that his marriage with Catherine was null on grounds of consanguinity. Fisher and More disagreed with him, and would not yield, either on the question of the annulment, nor later, when they were required to acknowledge the King as the final authority on ecclesiastical questions in England. Henry had them imprisoned, and finally beheaded, Fisher on 22 June 1535 and More on 6 July 1535.  Thomas More was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1935.

Henry VIII was terrible and cruel King. He executed anyone who disagreed with him (including two of his wives!).  By the time Henry died, everyone was completely terrified of him.

Henry had a very spoilt childhood as you might expect of a Royal Prince. So spoiled was he that he even had his own ‘whipping boy’ who was punished every time Henry did something wrong!

Henrys older brother Arthur was first in line to be king but he died age 16, shortly after marrying Catherine of Aragon.

Soon afterwards Catherine aged 17, was engaged to Henry then aged only 12! They married when Henry became King in 1509.

At this time he was young, handsome and charming. He had a bright head of red/gold hair and was over 6 foot tall.

When he became King the country was Catholic and was controlled by the Pope in Rome. When the Pope wouldn’t let Henry get divorced from his first wife, Henry made himself head of the church in England instead and gave himself the divorce he wanted.

Later Henry closed all the Monasteries and Nunneries in England and took all the money from the Monks and Nuns. He literally threw all of them out onto the streets to beg and gave their Monasteries to his friends for fine houses.

This time was called the Reformation in England



1543 First Protestants burned at the stake by Spanish Inquisition.

154? Lutherans raid and loot the Jewish synagogue in Berlin.

154? Luther convinces the government to ban all Jews and expel them for the entire country. Many Jews find new homes in Poland, Lithuania, and the Ukraine.

1700's to Present


(worldwide Evangelism)

America is the largest Christian Nation in the world, and sends her best around the globe to Evangelize the World.

This is accomplished by both Catholics and Non-Catholics.  Both do it for the love of Jesus Christ the Lord and Savior. 

The Age of Philadelphia
Christ "Opens the Door"
(Revelation 3:7-13)

Some Key "Players"


William Carey

Hudson Taylor

Billy Graham

David Livingstone

William Tennent

Jonathan Edwards

George Whitefield

10's of thousands of missionaries


John Wesley

Methodists believe there is a method to salvation

photoJohn Wesley is viewed as the father of the Methodist movement. The devotion to God and the Scriptures which formed him as a child stayed with him throughout the whole of his life, eventually qualifying him for the leadership of others in his adult life. He was raised by two parents whose emphasis upon God strongly influenced Wesley. His father was the rector in the town of Epson, while his mother was a strong spiritual leader in the home. Wesley was closest to his mother, and his views were largely shaped by the correspondence he carried with her during his adult life.

Wesley's experiences as a student at Oxford were formative to his spiritual development as well. He was dedicated to reading the Scriptures and praying twice a day, though often grew frustrated at the carnal weaknesses he continually saw patterned in his life. At this time Wesley's understanding of inner holiness was represented by the good works done by a person. For this reason he methodically recorded his daily activities in his journal and made resolutions as to how he could become more holy. While at Oxford, he and a group of other students formed what became known as the Holy Club. The young men committed their time to good works and the attempt at inward holiness. John Wesley was viewed as the leader of this group.

After his schooling at Oxford, Wesley traveled to the United States with the intention of bringing religion to the Indians. His experience fell short of his expectations when he was appointed as a preacher in Savannah rather than an evangelist to the Native Americans. It was here, however, that Wesley became acquainted with the Moravian sect, a group of believers whose emphasis was upon inner faith and assurance. This was a new concept to Wesley, who had hitherto stressed outer works as a manifestation of one's inner faith.

Upon returning to England, Wesley sought to better understand the Moravian doctrine, eventually rejecting it for its self-righteousness and lack of dependence upon Scripture. The exposure to the idea of inner faith and assurance of grace that he received with them was definitive, however, and led him toward his famous Aldersgate experience. It was at Aldersgate that Wesley recognized his need to know God with assurance, and understood that before that moment he had not been acting under God's grace. He realized he had yet to possess inner faith. He was to have other experiences similar to this in the future, but Aldersgate is most widely remembered because it was his first realization of a need for change in his theology.

As Wesley began to preach about the foremost need for faith above works, he became highly unpopular with the surrounding churches. He was refused at their doors and was forced to preach open-air sermons. These sermons attracted hundreds, sometimes thousands, of followers and began the movement that would eventually bring about the Methodist church. During his life, Wesley was opposed to separation from the Church of England. He made every attempt to remain loyal to her, even through their differing views, and concluded that if there were to be a complete separation, it would not be his fault. A separation did come about, however, when Wesley sent ministers to the colonists in America, forming a church separate from the Church of England.

"Christian Perfection" and "A Plain Account of Genuine Christianity" shows Wesley as an advocate of the individual's ability to attain perfection while on earth. Many were divided on this view as well, but Wesley maintained it as a valid perspective according to the Scriptures. Conversely, as much as he believed in the Christian's ability to become perfect, he also believed that the Christian was just as liable to fall into perdition if he was not watchful of his actions. This ideology is also outlined in the latter part of "The Struggle With the Calvinists."

Wesley identified the problem existing between the Protestants and Catholics in his day, as well as the divisions between particular sects of Protestantism. He was not desirous of a further breach in the church with his formation of the Methodist sect, and often wrote to reconcile brothers in the church, even though they held opposing views on certain issues. Such topics are discussed in "Catholic Spirit" and "An Olive Branch to the Romans."

Catholicism Today:

Was the Papacy was actually subverted by the Illuminati in 1958 when John XXIII became Pope?

Over a billion members.  Some breakaway Catholics today, called sedevacantists (only a few thousand members), claim the current Popes are heretics for replacing the Tridentine Latin Mass with what they call the Novus Ordo Missae and allowing the celebration of the Mass in the vernacular. Sedevacantism is the belief that the office of pope of the Roman Catholic Church is currently vacant (sede vacante). Sedevacantists are a traditional Catholic segment of Catholicism who insist that the men who have occupied the Vatican palace since the latter part of the 20th century are heretics for introducing the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and for replacing the Tridentine Roman Missal and its order of Mass with a new one which allows the celebration of the Mass in the vernacular instead of Latin. This group argues that Pope John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) (r: 1958-1963) joined the freemasons in 1935, an act that, if true, would have earned automatic ipso facto excommunication and so made him ineligible for the papacy. 

Long-standing suspicions regarding John XXIII’s links to Masonry were further aroused in 1977, fourteen years after his death. Of particular interest was an advertisement published in the USA, Boston Pilot Magazine, which was offering for sale replicas of John XXIII’s pectoral cross. The cross was decorated with several Masonic symbols and had been authorized for sale by Archbishop Capovilla of Loreto, Italy, with the backing of the Vatican.  Also of note, it was Pope John XXIII who broke with the tradition which argued that Catholics could not belong to secret societies, and pronounced that they could.           

Another striking coincidence is one occasioned by a twelfth century Irish monk named Malachai, who compiled a series of Nostradamus-like prophecies which enumerated the Pontiffs who would occupy the throne of Saint Peter in the centuries to come.  For each Pontiff, Malachai offered a species of descriptive motto.  In Pope John XXIII's case, the motto is "Shepherd and Navigator".  "Navigator" is also the official title of Sion's alleged grand master. 

See more on freemasonry here.

Christ Closes the Door?

References: This chronology is an all-source document garnered freely from various sources on the internet. Some sources used in assembling this list include a chronology by Paul Harvey, The World Almanac and Book of Facts, the Academic American Encyclopedia (on Compuserve), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, and The English Versions of the Bible by John Berchmans Dockery O.F.M. Question marks on dates indicate approximate dates, question marks on other information indicates information which is theoretical and/or not universally accepted as fact.